Infertility and Smoking
Smoking and Male Fertility
Cigarette smoking increases the chance of male infertility. It can have significant harmful effects on sperm motility, sperm morphology and erectile function. The effects correlate with the amount smoked, so men who smoke should cut back as much as possible even if they can't completely give up. After smoking cessation, it takes about three months to restore these functions to their normal state.
Smoking and Female Fertility
Smoking also has a harmful effect on a woman's fertility. It can cause longer waits before getting pregnant, more miscarriages, early menopause and abnormal eggs. Follicular fluid, when tested in women who smoked, showed high levels of cadmium, a heavy metal present in cigarettes, as well as cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine.